Lesson 1.8: Literate Programming with Markdown

The purpose of this lesson is to teach a paradigm for performing literate programming in K, and explain how this can be used to create K definitions that are also documentation.

Markdown and K

The K tutorial so far has been written in Markdown. Markdown, for those not already familiar, is a lightweight plain-text format for styling text. From this point onward, we assume you are familiar with Markdown and how to write Markdown code. You can refer to the above link for a tutorial if you are not already familiar.

What you may not necessarily realize, however, is that the K tutorial is also a sequence of K definitions written in the manner of Literate Programming. For detailed information about Literate Programming, you can read the linked Wikipedia article, but the short summary is that literate programming is a way of intertwining documentation and code together in a manner that allows executable code to also be, simultaneously, a documented description of that code.

K is provided with built-in support for literate programming using Markdown. By default, if you pass a file with the .md file extension to kompile, it will look for any code blocks containing k code in that file, extract out that K code into pure K, and then compile it as if it were a .k file.

A K code block begins with a line of text containing the keyword ```k, and ends when it encounters another ``` keyword.

For example, if you view the markdown source of this document, this is a K code block:

module LESSON-08 imports INT

Only the code inside K code blocks will actually be sent to the compiler. The rest, while it may appear in the document when rendered by a markdown viewer, is essentially a form of code comment.

When you have multiple K code blocks in a document, K will append each one together into a single file before passing it off to the outer parser.

For example, the following code block contains sentences that are part of the LESSON-08 module that we declared the beginning of above:

syntax Int ::= Int "+" Int [function] rule I1 + I2 => I1 +Int I2


Compile this file with kompile README.md --main-module LESSON-08. Confirm that you can use the resulting compiled definition to evaluate the + function.

Markdown Selectors

On occasion, you may want to generate multiple K definitions from a single Markdown file. You may also wish to include a block of syntax-highlighted K code that nonetheless does not appear as part of your K definition. It is possible to accomplish this by means of the built-in support for syntax highlighting in Markdown. Markdown allows a code block that was begun with ``` to be immediately followed by a string which is used to signify what programming language the following code is written in. However, this feature actually allows arbitrary text to appear describing that code block. Markdown parsers are able to parse this text and render the code block differently depending on what text appears after the backticks.

In K, you can use this functionality to specify one or more Markdown selectors which are used to describe the code block. A Markdown selector consists of a sequence of characters containing letters, numbers, and underscores. A code block can be designated with a single selector by appending the selector immediately following the backticks that open the code block.

For example, here is a code block with the foo selector:

foo bar

Note that this is not K code. By convention, K code should have the k selector on it. You can express multiple selectors on a code block by putting them between curly braces and prepending each with the . character. For example, here is a code block with the foo and k selectors:

.k .foo
syntax Int ::= foo(Int) [function] rule foo(0) => 0

Because this code block contains the k Markdown selector, by default it is included as part of the K definition being compiled.


Confirm this fact by using krun to evaluate foo(0).

Markdown Selector Expressions

By default, as previously stated, K includes in the definition any code block with the k selector. However, this is merely a specific instance of a general principle, namely, that K allows you to control which selectors get included in your K definition. This is done by means of the --md-selector flag to kompile. This flag accepts a Markdown selector expression, which you can essentially think of as a kind of Boolean algebra over Markdown selectors. Each selector becomes an atom, and you can combine these atoms via the &, |, !, and () operators.

Here is a grammar, written in K, of the language of Markdown selector expressions:

.k .selector
syntax Selector ::= r"[0-9a-zA-Z_]+" [token] syntax SelectorExp ::= Selector | "(" SelectorExp ")" [bracket] > right: "!" SelectorExp > right: SelectorExp "&" SelectorExp > right: SelectorExp "|" SelectorExp

Here is a selector expression that selects all the K code blocks in this definition except the one immediately above:

k & (! selector)


This code block exists in order to make the above lesson a syntactically valid K definition. Consider why it is necessary.



  1. Compile this lesson with the selector expression k & (! foo) and confirm that you get a parser error if you try to evaluate the foo function with the resulting definition.

  2. Compile Lesson 1.3 as a K definition. Identify why it fails to compile. Then pass an appropriate --md-selector to the compiler in order to make it compile.

  3. Modify your calculator application from Lesson 1.7, Exercise 2, to be written in a literate style. Consider what text might be appropriate to turn the resulting markdown file into documentation for your calculator.

Next lesson

Once you have completed the above exercises, you can continue to Lesson 1.9: Unparsing and the format and color attributes.