Lesson 1.8: Literate Programming with Markdown
The purpose of this lesson is to teach a paradigm for performing literate programming in K, and explain how this can be used to create K definitions that are also documentation.
Markdown and K
The K tutorial so far has been written in Markdown. Markdown, for those not already familiar, is a lightweight plain-text format for styling text. From this point onward, we assume you are familiar with Markdown and how to write Markdown code. You can refer to the above link for a tutorial if you are not already familiar.
What you may not necessarily realize, however, is that the K tutorial is also a sequence of K definitions written in the manner of Literate Programming. For detailed information about Literate Programming, you can read the linked Wikipedia article, but the short summary is that literate programming is a way of intertwining documentation and code together in a manner that allows executable code to also be, simultaneously, a documented description of that code.
K is provided with built-in support for literate programming using Markdown.
By default, if you pass a file with the
.md file extension to
will look for any code blocks containing k code in that file, extract out
that K code into pure K, and then compile it as if it were a
A K code block begins with a line of text containing the keyword
and ends when it encounters another
For example, if you view the markdown source of this document, this is a K code block:
module LESSON-08 imports INT
Only the code inside K code blocks will actually be sent to the compiler. The rest, while it may appear in the document when rendered by a markdown viewer, is essentially a form of code comment.
When you have multiple K code blocks in a document, K will append each one together into a single file before passing it off to the outer parser.
For example, the following code block contains sentences that are part of the
LESSON-08 module that we declared the beginning of above:
syntax Int ::= Int "+" Int [function] rule I1 + I2 => I1 +Int I2
Compile this file with
kompile README.md --main-module LESSON-08. Confirm
that you can use the resulting compiled definition to evaluate the
On occasion, you may want to generate multiple K definitions from a single
Markdown file. You may also wish to include a block of syntax-highlighted K
code that nonetheless does not appear as part of your K definition. It is
possible to accomplish this by means of the built-in support for syntax
highlighting in Markdown. Markdown allows a code block that was begun with
``` to be immediately followed by a string which is used to signify what
programming language the following code is written in. However, this feature
actually allows arbitrary text to appear describing that code block. Markdown
parsers are able to parse this text and render the code block differently
depending on what text appears after the backticks.
In K, you can use this functionality to specify one or more Markdown selectors which are used to describe the code block. A Markdown selector consists of a sequence of characters containing letters, numbers, and underscores. A code block can be designated with a single selector by appending the selector immediately following the backticks that open the code block.
For example, here is a code block with the
Note that this is not K code. By convention, K code should have the
selector on it. You can express multiple selectors on a code block by putting
them between curly braces and prepending each with the
. character. For
example, here is a code block with the
syntax Int ::= foo(Int) [function] rule foo(0) => 0
Because this code block contains the
k Markdown selector, by default it is
included as part of the K definition being compiled.
Confirm this fact by using
krun to evaluate
Markdown Selector Expressions
By default, as previously stated, K includes in the definition any code block
k selector. However, this is merely a specific instance of a general
principle, namely, that K allows you to control which selectors get included
in your K definition. This is done by means of the
--md-selector flag to
kompile. This flag accepts a Markdown selector expression, which you
can essentially think of as a kind of Boolean algebra over Markdown selectors.
Each selector becomes an atom, and you can combine these atoms via the
Here is a grammar, written in K, of the language of Markdown selector expressions:
syntax Selector ::= r"[0-9a-zA-Z_]+" [token] syntax SelectorExp ::= Selector | "(" SelectorExp ")" [bracket] > right: "!" SelectorExp > right: SelectorExp "&" SelectorExp > right: SelectorExp "|" SelectorExp
Here is a selector expression that selects all the K code blocks in this definition except the one immediately above:
k & (! selector)
This code block exists in order to make the above lesson a syntactically valid K definition. Consider why it is necessary.
Compile this lesson with the selector expression
k & (! foo)and confirm that you get a parser error if you try to evaluate the
foofunction with the resulting definition.
Compile Lesson 1.3 as a K definition. Identify why it fails to compile. Then pass an appropriate
--md-selectorto the compiler in order to make it compile.
Modify your calculator application from lesson 1.7, problem 2, to be written in a literate style. Consider what text might be appropriate to turn the resulting markdown file into documentation for your calculator.
Once you have completed the above exercises, you can continue to Lesson 1.9: Unparsing and the format and color attributes.