KOOL — Typed — Dynamic

Author: Grigore Roșu (grosu@illinois.edu)
Organization: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Author: Traian Florin Șerbănuță (traian.serbanuta@unibuc.ro)
Organization: University of Bucharest


This is the K dynamic semantics of the typed KOOL language. It is very similar to the semantics of the untyped KOOL, the difference being that we now check the typing policy dynamically. Since we have to now declare the types of variables and methods, we adopt a syntax for those which is close to Java. Like in the semantics of untyped KOOL, where we borrowed almost all the semantics of untyped SIMPLE, we are going to also borrow much of the semantics of dynamically typed SIMPLE here. We will highlight the differences between the dynamically typed and the untyped KOOL as we proceed with the semantics. In general, the type policy of the typed KOOL language is similar to that of Java. You may find it useful to also read the discussion in the preamble of the static semantics of typed KOOL before proceeding.



Like for the untyped KOOL language, the syntax of typed KOOL extends that of typed SIMPLE with object-oriented constructs. The syntax below was produced by copying and modifying/extending the syntax of dynamically typed SIMPLE. In fact, the only change we made to the existing syntax of dynamically typed SIMPLE was to change the strictness of the application construct like in untyped KOOL, from strict to strict(2) (because application is not strict in the first argument anymore due to dynamic method dispatch). The KOOL-specific syntactic extensions are identical to those in untyped KOOL.

  syntax Id ::= "Object" [token] | "Main" [token]


  syntax Type ::= "void" | "int" | "bool" | "string"
                | Id                              // KOOL class
                | Type "[" "]"
                > Types "->" Type
                | "(" Type ")"           [bracket]
  // TODO(KORE): drop klabel once issues #1913 are fixed
  syntax Types ::= List{Type,","}   [klabel(_,_::Types)]
  syntax Types ::= List{Type,","}


  syntax Param ::= Type Id
  syntax Params ::= List{Param,","}

  syntax Decl ::= Type Exps ";" [avoid]
                | Type Id "(" Params ")" Block    // stays like in typed SIMPLE
                | "class" Id Block                // KOOL
                | "class" Id "extends" Id Block   // KOOL


  syntax Exp ::= Int | Bool | String | Id
               | "this"                                 // KOOL
               | "super"                                // KOOL
               | "(" Exp ")"             [bracket]
               | "++" Exp
               | Exp "instanceOf" Id     [strict(1)]    // KOOL
               | "(" Id ")" Exp          [strict(2)]    // KOOL  cast
               | "new" Id "(" Exps ")"   [strict(2)]    // KOOL
               | Exp "." Id                             // KOOL
               > Exp "[" Exps "]"        [strict]
               > Exp "(" Exps ")"        [strict(2)]    // was strict in SIMPLE
               | "-" Exp                 [strict]
               | "sizeOf" "(" Exp ")"    [strict]
               | "read" "(" ")"
               > left:
                 Exp "*" Exp             [strict, left]
               | Exp "/" Exp             [strict, left]
               | Exp "%" Exp             [strict, left]
               > left:
                 Exp "+" Exp             [strict, left]
               | Exp "-" Exp             [strict, left]
               > non-assoc:
                 Exp "<" Exp             [strict, non-assoc]
               | Exp "<=" Exp            [strict, non-assoc]
               | Exp ">" Exp             [strict, non-assoc]
               | Exp ">=" Exp            [strict, non-assoc]
               | Exp "==" Exp            [strict, non-assoc]
               | Exp "!=" Exp            [strict, non-assoc]
               > "!" Exp                 [strict]
               > left:
                 Exp "&&" Exp            [strict(1), left]
               | Exp "||" Exp            [strict(1), left]
               > "spawn" Block
               > Exp "=" Exp             [strict(2), right]

  syntax Exps ::= List{Exp,","}          [strict, klabel(exps)]
  syntax Val
  syntax Vals ::= List{Val,","}          [klabel(exps)]


  syntax Block ::= "{" "}"
                | "{" Stmts "}"

  syntax Stmt ::= Decl | Block
                | Exp ";"                               [strict]
                | "if" "(" Exp ")" Block "else" Block   [avoid, strict(1)]
                | "if" "(" Exp ")" Block
                | "while" "(" Exp ")" Block
                | "for" "(" Stmts Exp ";" Exp ")" Block
                | "print" "(" Exps ")" ";"              [strict]
                | "return" Exp ";"                      [strict]
                | "return" ";"
                | "try" Block "catch" "(" Param ")" Block
                | "throw" Exp ";"                       [strict]
                | "join" Exp ";"                        [strict]
                | "acquire" Exp ";"                     [strict]
                | "release" Exp ";"                     [strict]
                | "rendezvous" Exp ";"                  [strict]

  syntax Stmts ::= Stmt
                 | Stmts Stmts                          [right]

Desugaring macros

  rule if (E) S => if (E) S else {}                                     [macro]
  rule for(Start Cond; Step) {S::Stmts} => {Start while(Cond){S Step;}} [macro]
  rule T::Type E1::Exp, E2::Exp, Es::Exps; => T E1; T E2, Es;           [macro-rec]
  rule T::Type X::Id = E; => T X; X = E;                                [macro]

  rule class C:Id S => class C extends Object S                     // KOOL



We first discuss the new configuration, then we include the semantics of the constructs borrowed from SIMPLE which stay unchanged, then those whose semantics had to change, and finally the semantics of the KOOL-specific constructs.

  imports DOMAINS


The configuration of dynamically typed KOOL is almost identical to that of its untyped variant. The only difference is the cell return, inside the control cell, whose role is to hold the expected return type of the invoked method. That is because we want to dynamically check that the value that a method returns has the expected type.

  // the syntax declarations below are required because the sorts are
  // referenced directly by a production and, because of the way KIL to KORE
  // is implemented, the configuration syntax is not available yet
  // should simply work once KIL is removed completely
  // check other definitions for this hack as well
  syntax EnvCell
  syntax ControlCellFragment
  syntax EnvStackCell
  syntax CrntObjCellFragment

  configuration <T color="red">
                  <threads color="orange">
                    <thread multiplicity="*" type="Set" color="yellow">
                      <k color="green"> ($PGM:Stmts ~> execute) </k>
                    //<br/> // TODO(KORE): support latex annotations #1799
                      <control color="cyan">
                        <fstack color="blue"> .List </fstack>
                        <xstack color="purple"> .List </xstack>
                        <returnType color="LimeGreen"> void </returnType>  // KOOL
                      //<br/> // TODO(KORE): support latex annotations #1799
                        <crntObj color="Fuchsia">  // KOOL
                           <crntClass> Object </crntClass>
                           <envStack> .List </envStack>
                           <location multiplicity="?"> .K </location>
                    //<br/> // TODO(KORE): support latex annotations #1799
                      <env color="violet"> .Map </env>
                      <holds color="black"> .Map </holds>
                      <id color="pink"> 0 </id>
                //<br/> // TODO(KORE): support latex annotations #1799
                  <store color="white"> .Map </store>
                  <busy color="cyan">.Set </busy>
                  <terminated color="red"> .Set </terminated>
                  <input color="magenta" stream="stdin"> .List </input>
                  <output color="brown" stream="stdout"> .List </output>
                  <nextLoc color="gray"> 0 </nextLoc>
                //<br/> // TODO(KORE): support latex annotations #1799
                  <classes color="Fuchsia">        // KOOL
                     <classData multiplicity="*" type="Map" color="Fuchsia">
                        <className color="Fuchsia"> Main </className>
                        <baseClass color="Fuchsia"> Object </baseClass>
                        <declarations color="Fuchsia"> .K </declarations>

Unchanged semantics from dynamically typed SIMPLE

The semantics below is taken over from dynamically typed SIMPLE unchanged. Like for untyped KOOL, the semantics of function/method declaration and invocation, and of program initialization needs to change. Moreover, due to subtyping, the semantics of several imported SIMPLE constructs can be made more general, such as that of the return statement, that of the assignment, and that of the exceptions. We removed all these from the imported semantics of SIMPLE below and gave their modified semantics right after, together with the extended semantics of thread spawning (which is identical to that of untyped KOOL).

  syntax Val ::= Int | Bool | String
               | array(Type,Int,Int)
  syntax Exp ::= Val
  syntax Exps ::= Vals
  syntax KResult ::= Val
  syntax KResult ::= Vals

  syntax KItem ::= undefined(Type)  [latex(\bot_{#1})]

  rule <k> T:Type X:Id; => . ...</k>
       <env> Env => Env[X <- L] </env>
       <store>... .Map => L |-> undefined(T) ...</store>
       <nextLoc> L:Int => L +Int 1 </nextLoc>

  rule <k> T:Type X:Id[N:Int]; => . ...</k>
       <env> Env => Env[X <- L] </env>
       <store>... .Map => L |-> array(T, L +Int 1, N)
                          (L +Int 1)...(L +Int N) |-> undefined(T) ...</store>
       <nextLoc> L:Int => L +Int 1 +Int N </nextLoc>
    requires N >=Int 0

  context _:Type _::Exp[HOLE::Exps];

  syntax Id ::= "$1" | "$2"
  rule T:Type X:Id[N1:Int, N2:Int, Vs:Vals];
    => T[]<Vs> X[N1];
         T[][]<Vs> $1=X;
         for(int $2=0; $2 <= N1 - 1; ++$2) {
           T X[N2,Vs];
           $1[$2] = X;

  rule <k> X:Id => V ...</k>
       <env>... X |-> L ...</env>
       <store>... L |-> V:Val ...</store>  [lookup]

  context ++(HOLE => lvalue(HOLE))
  rule <k> ++loc(L) => I +Int 1 ...</k>
       <store>... L |-> (I:Int => I +Int 1) ...</store>  [increment]

  rule I1 + I2 => I1 +Int I2
  rule Str1 + Str2 => Str1 +String Str2
  rule I1 - I2 => I1 -Int I2
  rule I1 * I2 => I1 *Int I2
  rule I1 / I2 => I1 /Int I2 requires I2 =/=K 0
  rule I1 % I2 => I1 %Int I2 requires I2 =/=K 0
  rule - I => 0 -Int I
  rule I1 < I2 => I1 <Int I2
  rule I1 <= I2 => I1 <=Int I2
  rule I1 > I2 => I1 >Int I2
  rule I1 >= I2 => I1 >=Int I2
  rule V1:Val == V2:Val => V1 ==K V2
  rule V1:Val != V2:Val => V1 =/=K V2
  rule ! T => notBool(T)
  rule true  && E => E
  rule false && _ => false
  rule true  || _ => true
  rule false || E => E

  rule V:Val[N1:Int, N2:Int, Vs:Vals] => V[N1][N2, Vs]
    [structural, anywhere]

  rule array(_:Type, L:Int, M:Int)[N:Int] => lookup(L +Int N)
    requires N >=Int 0 andBool N <Int M  [structural, anywhere]

  rule sizeOf(array(_,_,N)) => N

  syntax Val ::= nothing(Type)
  rule <k> return; => return nothing(T); ...</k> <returnType> T </returnType>

  rule <k> read() => I ...</k> <input> ListItem(I:Int) => .List ...</input>  [read]

  context (HOLE => lvalue(HOLE)) = _

  rule {} => .  [structural]
  rule <k> { S } => S ~> setEnv(Env) ...</k>  <env> Env </env>  [structural]

  rule S1:Stmts S2:Stmts => S1 ~> S2  [structural]

  rule _:Val; => .

  rule if ( true) S else _ => S
  rule if (false) _ else S => S

  rule while (E) S => if (E) {S while(E)S}  [structural]

  rule <k> print(V:Val, Es => Es); ...</k> <output>... .List => ListItem(V) </output>
    requires typeOf(V) ==K int orBool typeOf(V) ==K string  [print]
  rule print(.Vals); => .  [structural]

  rule (<thread>... <k>.</k> <holds>H</holds> <id>T</id> ...</thread> => .Bag)
       <busy> Busy => Busy -Set keys(H) </busy>
       <terminated>... .Set => SetItem(T) ...</terminated>

  rule <k> join T:Int; => . ...</k>
       <terminated>... SetItem(T) ...</terminated>

  rule <k> acquire V:Val; => . ...</k>
       <holds>... .Map => V |-> 0 ...</holds>
       <busy> Busy (.Set => SetItem(V)) </busy>
    requires (notBool(V in Busy:Set))  [acquire]

  rule <k> acquire V; => . ...</k>
       <holds>... V:Val |-> (N:Int => N +Int 1) ...</holds>

  rule <k> release V:Val; => . ...</k>
       <holds>... V |-> (N => N:Int -Int 1) ...</holds>
    requires N >Int 0

  rule <k> release V; => . ...</k> <holds>... V:Val |-> 0 => .Map ...</holds>
       <busy>... SetItem(V) => .Set ...</busy>

  rule <k> rendezvous V:Val; => . ...</k>
       <k> rendezvous V; => . ...</k>  [rendezvous]

Unchanged auxiliary operations from dynamically typed SIMPLE

  syntax Stmts ::= mkDecls(Params,Vals)  [function]
  rule mkDecls((T:Type X:Id, Ps:Params), (V:Val, Vs:Vals))
    => T X=V; mkDecls(Ps,Vs)
  rule mkDecls(.Params,.Vals) => {}

  syntax Exp ::= lookup(Int)
  rule <k> lookup(L) => V ...</k> <store>... L |-> V:Val ...</store>  [lookup]

  syntax KItem ::= setEnv(Map)
  rule <k> setEnv(Env) => . ...</k>  <env> _ => Env </env>  [structural]
  rule (setEnv(_) => .) ~> setEnv(_)  [structural]

  syntax Exp ::= lvalue(K)
  syntax Val ::= loc(Int)
  rule <k> lvalue(X:Id => loc(L)) ...</k>  <env>... X |-> L:Int ...</env>

  context lvalue(_::Exp[HOLE::Exps])
  context lvalue(HOLE::Exp[_::Exps])

  rule lvalue(lookup(L:Int) => loc(L))  [structural]

  syntax Type ::= Type "<" Vals ">"  [function]
  rule T:Type<_,Vs:Vals> => T[]<Vs>
  rule T:Type<.Vals> => T

  syntax Map ::= Int "..." Int "|->" K
    [function, latex({#1}\ldots{#2}\mapsto{#3})]
  rule N...M |-> _ => .Map  requires N >Int M
  rule N...M |-> K => N |-> K (N +Int 1)...M |-> K  requires N <=Int M

  syntax Type ::= typeOf(K)  [function]
  rule typeOf(_:Int) => int
  rule typeOf(_:Bool) => bool
  rule typeOf(_:String) => string
  rule typeOf(array(T,_,_)) => (T[])
  rule typeOf(undefined(T)) => T
  rule typeOf(nothing(T)) => T

  syntax Types ::= getTypes(Params)  [function]
  rule getTypes(T:Type _:Id) => T, .Types
  rule getTypes(T:Type _:Id, P, Ps) => T, getTypes(P,Ps)
  rule getTypes(.Params) => void, .Types

Changes to the existing dynamically typed SIMPLE semantics

We extend/change the semantics of several SIMPLE constructs in order to take advantage of the richer KOOL semantic infrastructure and thus get more from the existing SIMPLE constructs.

Program initialization

Like in untyped KOOL.

  syntax KItem ::= "execute"
  rule <k> execute => new Main(.Exps); </k> <env> .Map </env>  [structural]

Method application

The only change to untyped KOOL's values is that method closures are now typed (their first argument holds their type):

 syntax Val ::= objectClosure(Id,List)
              | methodClosure(Type,Id,Int,Params,Stmt)

The type held by a method clossure will be the entire type of the method, not only its result type like the lambda-closure of typed SIMPLE. The reason for this change comes from the the need to dynamically upcast values when passed to contexts where values of superclass types are expected; since we want method closures to be first-class-citizen values in our language, we have to be able to dynamically upcast them, and in order to do that elegantly it is convenient to store the entire ``current type'' of the method closure instead of just its result type. Note that this was unnecessary in the semantics of the dynamically typed SIMPLE language.

Method closure application needs to also set a new return type in the return cell, like in dynamically typed SIMPLE, in order for the values returned by its body to be checked against the return type of the method. To do this correctly, we also need to stack the current status of the return cell and then pop it when the method returns. We have to do the same with the current object environment, so we group them together in the stack frame.

  syntax KItem ::= fstackFrame(Map, K, List, Type, K)

  rule <k> methodClosure(_->T,Class,OL,Ps,S)(Vs:Vals) ~> K
           => mkDecls(Ps,Vs) S return; </k>
       <env> Env => .Map </env>
       <store>... OL |-> objectClosure(_, EStack)...</store>
     //<br/> // TODO(KORE): support latex annotations #1799
          <fstack> .List => ListItem(fstackFrame(Env, K, XS, T', <crntObj> Obj' </crntObj>)) ...</fstack>
          <xstack> XS </xstack>
          <returnType> T' => T </returnType>
          <crntObj> Obj' => <crntClass> Class </crntClass> <envStack> EStack </envStack> </crntObj>

At method return, we have to check that the type of the returned value is a subtype of the expected return type. Moreover, if that is the case, then we also upcast the returned value to one of the expected type. The computation item unsafeCast(V,T) changes the typeof V to T without any additional checks; however, it only does it when V is an object or a method, otherwise it returns V unchanged.

  rule <k> return V:Val; ~> _
           => subtype(typeOf(V), T) ~> true? ~> unsafeCast(V, T) ~> K
         <fstack> ListItem(fstackFrame(Env, K, XS, RT, <crntObj> CO </crntObj>)) => .List ...</fstack>
         <xstack> _ => XS </xstack>
         <returnType> T:Type => RT </returnType>
         <crntObj> _ => CO </crntObj>
       <env> _ => Env </env>


Typed KOOL allows to assign subtype instance values to supertype lvalues. The semantics of assignment below is similar in spirit to dynamically typed SIMPLE's, but a check is performed that the assigned value's type is a subtype of the location's type. If that is the case, then the assigned value is returned as a result and stored, but it is upcast appropriately first, so the context will continue to see a value of the expected type of the location. Note that the type of a location is implicit in the type of its contents and it never changes during the execution of a program; its type is assigned when the location is allocated and initialized, and then only type-preserving values are allowed to be stored in each location.

  rule <k> loc(L) = V:Val
           => subtype(typeOf(V),typeOf(V')) ~> true?
              ~> unsafeCast(V, typeOf(V')) ...</k>
       <store>... L |-> (V' => unsafeCast(V, typeOf(V'))) ...</store>

Typed exceptions

Exceptions are propagated now until a catch that can handle them is encountered.

  syntax KItem ::= xstackFrame(Param, Stmt, K, Map, K)
  syntax KItem ::= "popx"

  rule <k> (try S1 catch(P) S2 => S1 ~> popx) ~> K </k>
         <xstack> .List => ListItem(xstackFrame(P, S2, K, Env, C)) ...</xstack>
       <env> Env </env>

  rule <k> popx => . ...</k>
       <xstack> ListItem(_) => .List ...</xstack>

  rule <k> throw V:Val; ~> _
        => if (subtype(typeOf(V),T)) { T X = V; S2 } else { throw V; } ~> K
         <xstack> ListItem(xstackFrame(T:Type X:Id, S2, K, Env, C)) => .List ...</xstack>
         (_ => C)
       <env> _ => Env </env>


Like in untyped KOOL.

  rule <thread>...
         <k> spawn S => !T:Int ...</k>
         <env> Env </env>
         <crntObj> Obj </crntObj>
       (.Bag => <thread>...
               <k> S </k>
               <env> Env </env>
               <id> !T </id>
               <crntObj> Obj </crntObj>

Semantics of the new KOOL constructs

Class declaration

Like in untyped KOOL.

  rule <k> class Class1 extends Class2 { S } => . ...</k>
       <classes>... (.Bag => <classData>
                            <className> Class1 </className>
                            <baseClass> Class2 </baseClass>
                            <declarations> S </declarations>
       ...</classes>  [structural]

Method declaration

Methods are now typed and we need to store their types in their closures, so that their type contract can be checked at invocation time. The rule below is conceptually similar to that of untyped KOOL; the only difference is the addition of the types.

  rule <k> T:Type F:Id(Ps:Params) S => . ...</k>
       <crntClass> C </crntClass>
       <location> OL </location>
       <env> Env => Env[F <- L] </env>
       <store>... .Map => L|->methodClosure(getTypes(Ps)->T,C,OL,Ps,S) ...</store>
       <nextLoc> L => L +Int 1 </nextLoc>


The semantics of new in dynamically typed KOOL is also similar to that in untyped KOOL, the main difference being the management of the return types. Indeed, when a new object is created we also have to stack the current type in the return cell in order to be recovered after the creation of the new object. Only the first rule below needs to be changed; the others are identical to those in untyped KOOL.

  syntax KItem ::= envStackFrame(Id, Map)

  rule <k> new Class:Id(Vs:Vals) ~> K
           => create(Class) ~> (storeObj ~> ((Class(Vs)); return this;)) </k>
       <env> Env => .Map </env>
       <nextLoc> L:Int => L +Int 1 </nextLoc>
     //<br/> // TODO(KORE): support latex annotations #1799
         <xstack> XS </xstack>
         <crntObj> Obj
                   => <crntClass> Object </crntClass>
                      <envStack> ListItem(envStackFrame(Object, .Map)) </envStack>
                      <location> L </location>
         <returnType> T => Class </returnType>
         <fstack> .List => ListItem(fstackFrame(Env, K, XS, T, <crntObj>Obj</crntObj>)) ...</fstack>

  syntax KItem ::= create(Id)

  rule <k> create(Class:Id)
           => create(Class1) ~> setCrntClass(Class) ~> S ~> addEnvLayer ...</k>
       <className> Class </className>
       <baseClass> Class1:Id </baseClass>
       <declarations> S </declarations>  [structural]

  rule <k> create(Object) => . ...</k>  [structural]

  syntax KItem ::= setCrntClass(Id)

  rule <k> setCrntClass(C) => . ...</k>
       <crntClass> _ => C </crntClass>  [structural]

  syntax KItem ::= "addEnvLayer"

  rule <k> addEnvLayer => . ...</k>
       <env> Env => .Map </env>
       <crntClass> Class:Id </crntClass>
       <envStack> .List => ListItem(envStackFrame(Class, Env)) ...</envStack>

  syntax KItem ::= "storeObj"

  rule <k> storeObj => . ...</k>
         <crntClass> Class </crntClass>
         <envStack> EStack </envStack>
         (<location> L:Int </location> => .Bag)
       <store>... .Map => L |-> objectClosure(Class, EStack) ...</store>

Self reference

Like in untyped KOOL.

  rule <k> this => objectClosure(Class, EStack) ...</k>
         <crntClass> Class </crntClass>
         <envStack> EStack </envStack>

Object member access

Like in untyped KOOL.

  rule <k> X:Id => this . X ...</k> <env> Env:Map </env>
    requires notBool(X in keys(Env))  [structural]

  context HOLE . _::Id requires (HOLE =/=K super)

/*  rule objectClosure(<crntObj> <crntClass> Class:Id </crntClass>
                     <envStack>... ListItem((Class,EnvC:EnvCell)) EStack </envStack> </crntObj>)
       . X:Id
    => lookupMember(<envStack> ListItem((Class,EnvC)) EStack </envStack>, X)
  rule objectClosure(Class:Id,
                     ListItem(envStackFrame(Class,Env)) EStack)
       . X:Id
    => lookupMember(ListItem(envStackFrame(Class,Env)) EStack, X)
  rule objectClosure(Class:Id,
                     (ListItem(envStackFrame(Class':Id,_)) => .List) EStack)
       . X:Id
    requires Class =/=K Class' [structural]

/*  rule <k> super . X => lookupMember(<envStack>EStack</envStack>, X) ...</k>
       <crntClass> Class </crntClass>
       <envStack>... ListItem((Class,EnvC:EnvCell)) EStack </envStack>
  rule <k> super . X => lookupMember(EStack, X) ...</k>
       <crntClass> Class:Id </crntClass>
       <envStack> ListItem(envStackFrame(Class,_)) EStack </envStack>
  rule <k> super . X ...</k>
       <crntClass> Class:Id </crntClass>
       <envStack> (ListItem(envStackFrame(Class':Id,_)) => .List) EStack </envStack>
    requires Class =/=K Class' [structural]

Method invocation

The method lookup is the same as in untyped KOOL.

  rule <k> (X:Id => V)(_:Exps) ...</k>
       <env>... X |-> L ...</env>
       <store>... L |-> V:Val ...</store>  [lookup]

  rule <k> (X:Id => this . X)(_:Exps) ...</k>
       <env> Env </env>
    requires notBool(X in keys(Env))  [structural]

  context HOLE._::Id(_) requires HOLE =/=K super

  rule (objectClosure(_, EStack) . X
    => lookupMember(EStack, X:Id))(_:Exps)  [structural]

/*  rule <k> (super . X
            => lookupMember(<envStack>EStack</envStack>,X))(_:Exps)...</k>
       <crntClass> Class </crntClass>
       <envStack>... ListItem((Class,_)) EStack </envStack>
  rule <k> (super . X
            => lookupMember(EStack,X))(_:Exps)...</k>
       <crntClass> Class:Id </crntClass>
       <envStack> ListItem(envStackFrame(Class,_)) EStack </envStack>
  rule <k> (super . X)(_:Exps)...</k>
       <crntClass> Class:Id </crntClass>
       <envStack> (ListItem(envStackFrame(Class':Id,_)) => .List) EStack </envStack>
    requires Class =/=K Class' [structural]

  // TODO(KORE): fix getKLabel #1801
  rule (A:Exp(B:Exps))(C:Exps) => A(B) ~> #freezerFunCall(C)
  rule (A:Exp[B:Exps])(C:Exps) => A[B] ~> #freezerFunCall(C)
  rule V:Val ~> #freezerFunCall(C:Exps) => V(C)
  syntax KItem ::= "#freezerFunCall" "(" K ")"
  context HOLE(_:Exps)
    requires getKLabel HOLE ==KLabel '_`(_`) orBool getKLabel HOLE ==KLabel '_`[_`]

  rule <k> (lookup(L) => V)(_:Exps) ...</k>  <store>... L |-> V:Val ...</store>

Instance of

Like in untyped KOOL.

  rule objectClosure(_, ListItem(envStackFrame(C,_)) _)
       instanceOf C => true

  rule objectClosure(_, (ListItem(envStackFrame(C::Id,_)) => .List) _)
       instanceOf C'  requires C =/=K C'  [structural]

  rule objectClosure(_, .List) instanceOf _ => false


Unlike in untyped KOOL, in typed KOOL we actually check that the object can indeed be cast to the claimed type.

  rule (C:Id) objectClosure(Irrelevant, EStack)
    => objectClosure(Irrelevant, EStack) instanceOf C ~> true?
       ~> objectClosure(C, EStack)

KOOL-specific auxiliary declarations and operations

Objects as lvalues

Like in untyped KOOL.

  rule <k> lvalue(X:Id => this . X) ...</k>  <env> Env </env>
    requires notBool(X in keys(Env))  [structural]

  context lvalue((HOLE . _)::Exp)

/*  rule lvalue(objectClosure(<crntObj> <crntClass> C </crntClass>
                            <envStack>... ListItem((C,EnvC:EnvCell)) EStack </envStack> </crntObj>)
              . X
              => lookupMember(<envStack> ListItem((C,EnvC)) EStack </envStack>,
                              X))  [structural]*/
  rule lvalue(objectClosure(C:Id,
                            ListItem(envStackFrame(C,Env)) EStack)
              . X
              => lookupMember(ListItem(envStackFrame(C,Env)) EStack,
                              X))  [structural]
  rule lvalue(objectClosure(C,
                            (ListItem(envStackFrame(C',_)) => .List) EStack)
              . X)
    requires C =/=K C' [structural]

Lookup member

Like in untyped KOOL.

  syntax Exp ::= lookupMember(List,Id)  [function]

  rule lookupMember(ListItem(envStackFrame(_, X |-> L _)) _, X) => lookup(L)

  // TODO: fix rule below as shown once we support functions with deep rewrites
  // rule lookupMember(<envStack> ListItem((_, <env> Env </env>)) => .List
  //                     ...</envStack>, X)
  //   requires notBool(X in keys(Env))
  rule lookupMember(ListItem(envStackFrame(_, Env)) L, X)
    => lookupMember(L, X)
    requires notBool(X in keys(Env))

typeOf for the additional values}

  rule typeOf(objectClosure(C,_)) => C
  rule typeOf(methodClosure(T:Type,_,_,Ps:Params,_)) => T

Subtype checking

The subclass relation induces a subtyping relation.

  syntax Exp ::= subtype(Types,Types)

  rule subtype(T:Type, T) => true  [structural]

  rule <k> subtype(C1:Id, C:Id) => subtype(C2, C) ...</k>
       <className> C1 </className>
       <baseClass> C2:Id </baseClass>
    requires C1 =/=K C  [structural]

  rule subtype(Object,Class:Id) => false
    requires Class =/=K Object  [structural]

  rule subtype(Ts1->T2,Ts1'->T2') => subtype(((T2)::Type,Ts1'),((T2')::Type,Ts1))  [structural]

// Note that the following rule would be wrong!
//  rule subtype(T[],T'[]) => subtype(T,T')

  rule subtype((T:Type,Ts),(T':Type,Ts')) => subtype(T,T') && subtype(Ts,Ts')
    requires Ts =/=K .Types  [structural]
  rule subtype(.Types,.Types) => true  [structural]

Unsafe Casting

Performs unsafe casting. One should only use it in combination with the subtype relation above.

  syntax Val ::= unsafeCast(Val,Type)  [function]

  rule unsafeCast(objectClosure(_,EStack), C:Id)
    => objectClosure(C,EStack)

  rule unsafeCast(methodClosure(T',C,OL,Ps,S), T) => methodClosure(T,C,OL,Ps,S)

  rule unsafeCast(V:Val, T:Type) => V  requires typeOf(V) ==K T

Generic guard

A generic computational guard: it allows the computation to continue only if a prefix guard evaluates to true.

  syntax KItem ::= "true?"
  rule true ~> true? => .  [structural]


Go to Lesson 3, KOOL typed static.