A Naive Environment-based Polymorphic Type Inferencer

In this short lesson we discuss how to quickly turn a naive environment-based monomorphic type inferencer into a naive let-polymorphic one. Like in the previous lesson, we only need to change a few characters. In terms of the K framework, you will learn how to have both environments and substitution in the same definition.

Like in the previous lesson, all we have to do is to take the LAMBDA type inferencer in Lesson 5 and only change the macro

rule let X = E in E' => (lambda X . E') E  [macro]

as follows:

rule let X = E in E' => E'[E/X]  [macro]

The reasons why this works have already been explained in the previous lesson, so we do not repeat them here.

Since our new let macro uses substitution, we have to require the substitution module at the top and also import SUBSTITUTION in the current module, besides the already existing UNIFICATION.

Everything which worked with the type inferencer in Lesson 7 should also work now. Let us only try the exponential type example,

let f00 = lambda x . lambda y . x in
  let f01 = lambda x . f00 (f00 x) in
    let f02 = lambda x . f01 (f01 x) in
      let f03 = lambda x . f02 (f02 x) in
        let f04 = lambda x . f03 (f03 x) in
          f04

As expected, this gives us precisely the same type as in Lesson 7.

So the only difference between this type inferencer and the one in Lesson 7 is that substitution is only used for LAMBDA-to-LAMBDA transformations, but not for infusing types within LAMBDA programs. Thus, the syntax of LAMBDA programs is preserved intact, which some may prefer. Nevertheless, this type inferencer is still expensive and wasteful, because the let-bound expression is typed over and over again in each place where the let-bound variable occurs.

In the next lesson we will discuss a type inferencer based on the classic Damas-Hindley-Milner type system, which maximizes the reuse of typing work by means of parametric types.

Go to Lesson 9, Type Systems: Let-Polymorphic Type Inferencer (Damas-Hindley-Milner).